30 Geography Facts Everyone Keeps Getting Wrong

Surprise—Sydney is not the capital of Australia, and there are *four* South Poles!

1 / 29
Glaciers in Antarctica
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Mistake: Antarctica has no time zones

It’s a common misconception that the frozen continent at the South Pole had no time zones. But as we know from the science stations located in various parts of the massive ice shelf, there are nine different time zones in use in Antarctica.

2 / 29
Russian architecture
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Mistake: Russia and Turkey are the only countries on two continents

You might think that Russia and Turkey are the only two countries that lie in two continents. But according to geologists, the Asia-Europe boundary is the Caucasus watershed, which means the border also cuts through Georgia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan.

Here are 50+ more false facts almost everyone believes.

3 / 29
The Statue of Liberty
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Mistake: The Statue of Liberty is in New York

If you want to start an argument between New Yorkers and New Jerseyans, bring up this bone of contention. Even though the U.S. Geological Survey has placed Liberty Island in New York’s 8th Congressional District, the island actually resides in New Jersey’s waters, and is much closer to Jersey’s mainland than New York’s.

Take a virtual tour of these familiar New York City filming locations.

4 / 29
The Nile River
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Mistake: The Nile is the world’s longest river

That’s what it always said in our geography books, so this myth is pretty pervasive. But if you consider, as many studies do, the tributaries, multiple channels of a river, and cutoffs that eliminate longer river bends, the Amazon River beats out the Nile nowadays by a whisker—6,992 kilometres to 6,852.

5 / 29
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Mistake: Krakatoa is East of Java

Krakatoa, East of Java is the title of an exciting movie about the 1883 eruption that caused the loudest sound ever heard on earth. Trouble is, the volcano is off the west coast of Java. Didn’t anybody check this before they shot a whole movie about it?

Read the fascinating story of how a volcanic eruption on the other side of the world paved the way for the coldest summer in Canadian history.

6 / 29
Penguins in Antarctica
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Mistake: The South Pole is in Antarctica

Well, this is right. But it’s also wrong, because there are four different South Poles on the continent: The Geographic South Pole (where the earth’s axis intersects Earth’s crust), the Inaccessible South Pole (where Antarctica is farthest from the shoreline), the Geomagnetic South Pole (where the geomagnetic field intersects the Earth’s surface), and the Magnetic South Pole (where Earth’s magnetic fields intersect the crust). To further confuse you, because of magnetic drift, the magnetic south pole is constantly moving.

Believe it or not, there are 11 places on earth that are still unmapped.

7 / 29
Matterhorn in Switzerland
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Mistake: The Matterhorn is Europe’s highest mountain

Switzerland’s picturesque peak may be the most visually striking mountain in the world, but it’s not even close to being the tallest in Europe. For that you have to look to Russia’s Mt. Elbrus, which rises to 5,600 metres in the Caucasus Mountains near the border with Georgia.

Explore 15 breathtaking natural wonders you’ve never heard of.

8 / 29
Downtown Toronto
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Mistake: Toronto is the capital of Canada

Okay, this myth isn’t common among Canadians, but the rest of the world can be forgiven for making the assumption. After all, Toronto is the provincial capital, the nation’s financial and media centre, and boasts some of our most impressive cultural icons. The only thing it doesn’t have is the distinction of being our national capital, which is a four-hour drive away in Ottawa.

Think you’ve seen everything our nation’s capital has to offer? Add these awesome day trips from Ottawa to your itinerary!

9 / 29
African safari
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Mistake: Africa is a country

Hardly. Africa is a continent containing an astonishing 54 countries, each with its own languages, cultures and traditions.

Here’s what you should know before booking a safari in East Africa.

10 / 29
Geneva, Switzerland
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Mistake: Geneva is the capital of Switzerland

Geneva and Zurich may have reputations as world cultural centres, but the capital is actually Bern, the country’s fifth largest city. If you have a chance to visit, you absolutely must leave with a Toblerone chocolate bar as a souvenir—the world-famous chocolatier is headquartered in in the capital.

These gorgeous travel photos are sure to spark wanderlust.

11 / 29
Colourful field in Holland
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Mistake: Holland is a country

People have always used Holland and the Netherlands interchangeably. But they’re not the same. The Netherlands has 12 provinces, including North-Holland and South-Holland. But since the country’s major cities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and The Hague are in these provinces, people tend to just skip the details and mistakenly call the low-lying country Holland.

Take a peek at 20+ underrated cities across Europe.

12 / 29
Greenland coast
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Mistake: Greenland is bigger than Africa

We’re all familiar with Mercator Projections, those world maps from grade school that expand the poles to gigantic proportions. As a result, Greenland looks huge on those maps, while Africa looks fairly modest. In truth, it’s not even close. Africa is 18.9-million square kilometres, while Greenland covers only 1.3-million square kilometres.

Can you answer these real Jeopardy! questions about geography?

13 / 29
London Bridge at night
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Mistake: Great Britain and the United Kingdom are the same

We have a special relationship with the United Kingdom, so we should probably learn that these terms are not interchangeable. The United Kingdom is a country that includes England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Great Britain is only a part of that, specifically the island that consists of England, Scotland, and Wales.

When it’s safe to travel again, you’ll want to add these London attractions to your bucket list.

14 / 29
Street in Puerto Rico
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Mistake: Puerto Rico is a country

Maybe it’s the fact that Spanish is the island’s main language that makes picturesque Puerto Rico seem like a foreign country. But in fact it is a U.S. territory. But that could change going forward, as voters turned down the chance for statehood in 2012 and 2017.

Check out more fascinating Puerto Rico facts.

15 / 29
Blue Lagoon in Iceland
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Mistake: Iceland is covered with ice

Despite its name, the small island nation in the North Atlantic is actually fairly mild. Thanks to the warm North Atlantic Current nearby, the coasts of Iceland remain ice-free all winter. Sure there are glaciers, but there are also geysers and lots of volcanic activity, such as the Eyjafjallajökull eruption of 2010, which threw so much ash into the air that it stopped air travel across Europe for days.

This is the least-visited country in Europe, and it’s absolutely stunning!

16 / 29
Sydney Opera House
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Mistake: Sydney is the capital of Australia

When Canadians think of Australia, they picture the Sydney Opera House or the Sydney Olympics, so is it any wonder that we think the country’s largest city is also its capital? The capital is actually the city of Canberra, and it was chosen in 1908 as a compromise between Sydney and its rival city of Melbourne.

Here are more tough trivia questions only geniuses will get right.

17 / 29
Mississippi River
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Mistake: The Mississippi River is the longest in the U.S.

The Mississippi may have Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, but it can’t hold the title of being the longest river in the United States. At 3.767 kilometres in length, the Missouri River is 223 kilometres longer than the Mighty Mississippi.

18 / 29
Lighthouse in Maine
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Mistake: Maine is the easternmost state in the U.S.

Well, it was until 1959, when Alaska became a state and took over the title. How? The Aleutian Islands in Alaska cross over the 180th meridian, which means that the islands on the far side of the line are technically in the farthest eastern longitudes of the world. And the islands on this side of the line also make Alaska the westernmost state as well.

Geography not your forte? See how you fare against these history questions people always get wrong.

19 / 29
Miami Beach in Florida
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Mistake: Florida is the southernmost state in the U.S.

The Florida Keys are a picturesque haven for tourists who flock to the southernmost geographical marker in Key West. But it’s the southernmost continental point. Hawaii, in fact, reaches down nearly to the 21st latitude, only 2,358 kilometres from the equator.

Here are 30 more lies you were told as a kid (that you probably still believe).

20 / 29
Sunset behind clouds
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Mistake: All 50 states have Daylight Savings Time

That would be dead wrong. Hawaiians don’t switch their clocks like most of the mainlanders. And Arizona chooses not to recognize DST either. And to complicate things further, Navajo tribal lands in Arizona do recognize the time change. The bottom line? If you’re visiting Arizona, check your bus schedules carefully.

Here are 6 daylight saving time myths busted.

21 / 29
Homes in Norway
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Mistake: Norway is the northernmost country in the world

Sorry to disappoint all you Norse scholars, but the Kingdom of Norway is only the fourth most northern nation. Russia, Canada and Greenland all reach closer to the North Pole, with Greenland’s Kaffeklubben Island being the world’s most northern land.

Here are 75 more mind-blowing facts you’ll think are made up (but aren’t).

22 / 29
Mt. Whitney summit
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Mistake: Mt. Whitney is the highest mountain in the U.S.

Again, Mt. Whitney towered above all other peaks in the country until Alaska joined the union. Now, Alaska has the top 10 mountains in the country, the tallest being Denali (formerly Mt. McKinley) at 6,190 metres.

Check out these fascinating Canadian Rockies facts most people don’t know.

23 / 29
Route 66 highway
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Mistake: Route 66 is the longest highway in the United States

Sure, Nat King Cole made Route 66 famous with his song about “The highway that’s the best.” But while its name was easier to rhyme (“get your kicks on Route 66”), Route 66—or its modern equivalent I-40, pales next to Route 20, which runs coast to coast for 5,415 kilometres from Boston to Newport, Oregon.

Don’t miss these incredible stops on a Route 66 road trip.

24 / 29
Beach in Florida
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Mistake: Florida has the longest coastline of any state

It sounds true. After all, the whole state sticks out into the ocean, so it’s nothing but coastline, right? Yes, but according to the Congressional Research Service, Alaska has 10,868 kilometres of coastline compared to the Sunshine State’s 2,173. Bottom line: Alaska covers a whole lot of real estate.

Did you know that Canada has the longest coastline in the world? Check out more mind-blowing facts about Canada.

25 / 29
Village in Alaska
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Mistake: Alaska has the smallest population of the 50 states

Once upon a time that was true. But according to a 2016 census estimate, Wyoming has the fewest residents, with just below 586,000, ranking it No. 50 in state populations. Vermont comes after that with about 625,000, while Alaska is 48th, having nearly 742,000 residents.

Hungry for more trivia? Try your hand at these general knowledge quiz questions.

26 / 29
Verrazano Bridge
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Mistake: The world’s longest bridge is the Verrazano Narrows

Maybe it’s just American pride in the bridge that’s the gateway to New York Harbor, but it’s not even close to being the world’s longest. That honour goes to the Danyang-Kunshan Grand Bridge in Beijing, China, which stretches an amazing 164 kilometres as it carries the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. In case you’re wondering, the Verrazano comes in at No. 149 on the list of longest bridges in the world.

27 / 29
Orlando, Florida
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Mistake: Orlando is the capital of Florida

It may be the theme-park capital of the United States, but Orlando isn’t the capital of Florida. That would be Tallahassee, up near the Florida-Georgia line. Why such an out-of-the-way location? It was chosen because it was about half-way between St. Augustine and Pensacola, which had been the capitals of the Spanish territories of East Florida and West Florida.

Check out more fascinating trivia about American history.

28 / 29
Lagos, Nigeria
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Mistake: Lagos is the capital of Nigeria

This used to be true, but in 1991 the capital was moved to Abuja. There were at least two advantages to that move: Abuja is near the centre of the country, and it’s the location of Wonderland, one of the country’s first amusement parks.

Next, see if you can answer these fourth grade science quiz questions!

29 / 29
Banff in Alberta
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Mistake: Canada is the world’s largest country

Not even close. Russia is a massive 10.6-million square kilometres, so big that it has 10 time zones. Canada is a distant second with 6.2-million square kilometres, but with six time zones of its own, there’s a long gap in time between Vancouver in the west and St. John’s in Newfoundland.

Check out 13 mind-blowing Canadian geography facts most people don’t know.

Reader's Digest
Originally Published on Reader's Digest