Use a sterile potting mix for growing vegetables and other food crops indoors. Not only do you reduce the risk of soil-borne pathogens by using a prepared mix, your containers will be lighter in weight and easier to move around. A good growing mix for vegetables is even quantities of perlite, vermiculite, peat moss and sand. You can purchase premixes that include moisture-holding crystals and timed-release fertilizer, but these can get expensive especially if you plan a lot of plantings.
Choose The Right Containers
Almost anything can be used as a container for growing plants, providing it is clean, solidly constructed, and has drainage holes in the bottom. However, give some consideration to what you’re planting. A crop like salad greens or radish can be sown and grown in containers that are only a few inches deep, because you harvest the crop when it’s not very large. Crops such as tomatoes, beans, cucumbers and other climbing types of plants are going to grow larger, and require more of a root system to support them; carrots and beets also need more depth of soil to grow into, as their crops develop below the soil surface.
Feed Them Fertilizer
Growing plants need fertilizer, especially if in a soilless potting medium that contains no nutrients. Some gardeners use a water soluble fertilizer, either organic such as fish emulsion or seaweed fertilizer, or a chemically based product, once a week (or as per brand directions), while others use slow-release, palletized fertilizer mixed into the soil at the time of plantings. Whatever you use, don’t over-fertilize, which can cause salt buildup and burn delicate roots.