10 Foods That Can Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer
Colon cancer rates are rising, and the disease is striking adults at a younger age. But risk factors like weight gain and poor diet are within our control.
Colon cancer: First, the foods that raise your risk
Colon cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada, according to the Canadian Cancer Society. In many cases, the cause of colon cancer is unclear, though potential risk factors include weight gain, a sedentary lifestyle, and a poor diet. If you eat a lot of red and processed meat or down more than two alcoholic drinks a day, you're raising your risk, warns Cleveland Clinic dietitian Anna Taylor, MS, RD.
When it comes to meat, the problem stems not just from the meat itself but from the ways in which it is processed and cooked. In the case of processed meats, sodium nitrites combine with natural amines during cooking to form mutagenic, cancer-causing N-nitroso compounds. "Polyps can grow on the inner lining of the colon and some can turn into cancer if the cells start to grow abnormally out of control," said Leigh Tracy, RD, LDN, CDE, a dietitian at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore. But eat the right foods, and you can actually lower your risk, she says. These are the foods that offer you the most protection.
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Stock up on spinach, kale, and arugula. Not only can you find naturally occurring fibre in these plant foods—a diet component found to reduce the risk of colon cancer—but there are a variety of health benefits to eating more vegetables. Not getting enough is dangerous, Taylor points out: Research indicates that people who eat less than a cup of fruits and vegetables a day are at an increased risk of contracting colorectal cancer.
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This cruciferous green vegetable is a great source of fibre; it can help prevent weight gain, which can lead to increased risk for several types of cancer, including colon cancer, says Taylor. “Fibre slows down digestion which can help really control body weight,” she said. “Excess weight is associated with increased risk for all different types of cancer.” Learn to love it steamed, and it's just one of the easy ways to prevent cancer.
Blueberries, blackberries, strawberries—take your pick. These fruits are not only packed with fibre but also vitamin C. Research suggests that vitamin C can protect against colorectal cancers. Vitamin C is an antioxidant, Taylor says, which helps shield cells from the kind of damage that can promote cancer growth.
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If getting daily vitamin C and a variety of coloured foods is the goal, oranges are another obvious answer. The fibre plus vitamin C in oranges makes them a great candidate for cancer protection, reports Medical News Today. Oranges are also a low-calorie snack that can help prevent weight gain—another risk factor of cancer.
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Not only are bell peppers high in vitamin C, but they contain phytochemicals that may block the growth of cancer cells. "The number one thing is to eat fruits and vegetables and get a variety of the colours in there," said Rachel Johanek, RD, a dietitian with the Georgia Cancer Center at Augusta University. "Each of them has a different phytochemical compound that helps prevent damaged cells and protects good cells. I tell people to eat the rainbow—or set a goal of each meal having two different colors involved."
Johanek says the average American needs 25 to 38 grams of fibre a day—but only gets 10 to 16. That gap is worrisome—research suggests that failing to hit the daily recommend numbers boosts colon cancer risk. Johanek recommends lentils as a way to increase fibre and get the digestive system moving. Try throwing some in a soup or salad to up your daily fibre intake.
Beans are another fibre-rich food that can help shape a diet that will lower your risk of colon cancer. Kidney beans and black beans are also good ways to get plant protein—as opposed to, making it a good substitute for the previously mentioned processed meat. Some research indicates that eating beans at least twice a week can cut colon cancer risk nearly in half.
Oatmeal does a lot more than “stick to your ribs.” That feeling of fullness you get after eating a hearty bowl comes from all the fibre in oatmeal, explains the Dairy Council of California. And research suggests that eating at least 30 grams of fibre per day can reduce your risk of colon cancer by up to 21 per cent, says Taylor.
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Whole wheat pasta
When you choose whole wheat pasta over the regular variety, you not only add fibre but you also gain additional benefits, says Taylor. “The fibre helps slow down the rise and fall of blood sugar, and that helps prevent insulin resistance.” Controlling your blood sugar protects against weight gain, which is important as being overweight or obese is linked to an overall increased risk of cancer.
Quinoa can be a good grain substitute. It is not a cereal grain like wheat, oats, or corn but rather a seed harvested from a plant more closely related to spinach and beets. Unlike most grains, it’s a good source of protein, so it can help you cut down on red meat.
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