9 Animals That Can Change Colour
When you think of colour-change artists of the animal world, you probably think chameleons, but these other cool beasts can change colour, too.
Golden tortoise beetle
This pretty, shiny insect scientifically known as Charidotella sexpunctata is a wiz at changing its colour—from gold to black-spotted orange to an even darker spotted orange. Two things drive the colour shift in this North American native: Mating and to ward off predators, according to Scientific American.
This cephalopod—that means big-headed, tentacled mollusk—is a master of camouflage. According to scientists, it can look at its surroundings, then decide what colour or pattern it needs to change to so it's invisible to hungry predators like dolphins. The pigment in its skin is so sophisticated that National Geographic compares it to a high definition TV. Even more helpful: This denizen of Australia can shift its shape, too.
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This deep ocean dweller can change its colour in seconds flat—all the better to sneak up on other fish it wants to gobble for dinner. Scientists say that when it looks at the colour of the surrounding environment, its eyes transmit a message to its brain; this releases hormones that send pigments to the surface of its skin.
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Thanks to their diminutive size, seahorses need all the help they can get to avoid predators—a primary reason for their colour shifts, but not the only one. They also adapt colours to hunt, communicate with fellow seahorses, and to attract a mate. In a dangerous situation, a seahorse can change colour in a matter of seconds. The shift takes longer when they're attracting a mate, says WorldAtlas. It makes sense the creatures would take their time—they're one of the species that mate for life.
Pacific tree frog
This small native of the American West coast spends most of its time up in trees, blending in with the help of its colour shifts. Their choice of hue can vary depending on the background, the temperature, and the season. All of this keeps the amphibian safe from raccoons, large predatory birds, and snakes.
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Whitebanded crab spider
Living throughout the United States and Canada, the female crab spider will quickly change colour from white to yellow, and more slowly from yellow to white. They match the petals of flowers while they're hunting pollinators like bees, according to researchers at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. (The males are much smaller and can't change colour.) Going from yellow to white seems to take more energy, say the researchers, and that is why it takes longer.
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OK, it's not as dramatic as a quick-changing spider, but the Arctic fox is just one of a number of mammals that has fur that changes hue in winter—to camouflage it from prey and, possibly, to better insulate it against cold temperatures. Like the snowshoe hare, the short-tailed weasel, and the Peary caribou, the Arctic fox turns white when the season gets snowy.
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Also known by its scientific Latin name, Thaumoctopus mimicus, this cephalopod got its name for a good reason. It can change both its colour and its body shape to mimic other creatures of the deep, including lionfish, jellyfish, stingrays, and sea snakes. You've probably guessed the reason: These incredibly smart animals are avoiding detection by predators.
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No one's really sure why this lizard changes colour from green to brown and back again. It's been spotted sitting on a brown log and keeping its colour green, and also sitting on a green leaf and keeping its colour brown. Skin colour, says the Anole Annals, "makes the lizards more, rather than less, conspicuous." There's still plenty of debate about what benefit that could be. If you're up for a challenge, see if you can spot the animals camouflaged in these photos.